教室的消失與重建

  參加臺大教學發展中心舉辦的「翻轉教室工作坊」。
  這幾年來,對於我們這些在教學現場工作的大學教師而言,話題之一是「消失的教室」。當網路等科技發展到今天的地步,我們還需要一群師生,選一個固定的時間與空間見面,然後由老師淘淘不絕的說,學生奮力的記筆記嗎?的確,這種教學法,或稱之照本宣科,已落伍。近年來流行PPT教學法。教師在上課前將上課內容作成Powerpoint,最好是圖文並茂以引人入勝。上課時藉著E化教室的先進設備播放PPT。而教師則依據設計好的內容,順著PPT的播放授課。當下課的鐘聲響起,若能剛好放到最後一張PPT,則是教師的完美演出。由於歷史學需要圖像,所以PPT的幫助甚大。但我不喜歡這種教學法。總覺得應該是教室主角的教師淪為配音員。若上課是教師安排好的秀(show),而現場的教師只是配音員,就乾脆錄下來放在網路上供學生在教室以外的其他地方看,如餐桌上、馬桶上或電車上。想打瞌睡時就按暫停。老師講的無聊笑話可以快轉,看不懂的地方則可以重複看。
  據說美國文學家George Santayana在哈佛大學任教時,一天在課堂上看到外面的陽光燦爛,決定不再浪費時間在教書上,於是拂袖而去,離開教職。教研工作很累,有時我也想學Santayana,扔下粉筆,率性的離開校園。畢竟我是凡夫俗子,至今仍緊守我的飯碗,作不出這種事。但有時在春光明媚或冬雨綿綿的午後,我也會對上課慵懶無力。我在課堂上跟同學開玩笑,下次遇到同樣天氣,我就請TA來教室放我上課的錄影帶,而同學們也可以考慮上課前來架個攝影機,下課後再將攝影機收回即可。
  無教室的教學也不是什麼新鮮事。台灣的空中大學也行之多年,教育成效顯著。近年來拜網路科技的突飛猛進,各大學都推開放式課程。台大也有,其中一門是我二年前開的「傳統中國的國家與皇權」。我透過iTunes U可以看到世界許多大學的許多課程。如此一來,教室的意義在那裏?
  包括我在內的許多教育工作者都相信教室仍有其功能,因此「重建教室」成為一個議題。最簡單的想法就是,教室的功能不再是老師單向的傳授知識給學生。在今天,老師要傳授系統性知識給學生已不需要靠老師與學生聚在特定的時間與空間,通過口對耳。教室要作的事是師生間的對話,或說是討論。師生對話也不是什麼新的教育理念。「翻轉教室工作坊」的主持人葉丙成老師幽默的說,古代東西最偉大教育家孔子與蘇格拉底跟學生作的事是「啦咧」(閒談)。想來好像是這樣。我們對於孔子的教學內容來自於《論語》,而《論語》中所記大都是孔子在課堂中或戶外教學中的師生對話,不是來自於孔子備課的講義。
  我當然不是否定講義的重要性。而是講義不用再藉由課堂上老師講、學生抄的方式傳授。我在一年前教「東亞古代政治史」這門課時,就試行在課前將上課內容先以電子檔的形式傳給學生,並要求學生事先閱讀。在課堂上,我就不仔細談講義的內容,並希望能多跟學生討論。至於教學效果如何,我一時無法評估,這也與我自己的教學能力有關。
  這一次的「 翻轉教室工作坊」是推動一個新的教學方式。教師在上課前先將上課講演的內容錄製下來,並要求學生事先藉由網路觀看。教師在教室裡就不再重複錄影中的內容,而是與學生討論或進行測驗。
  做教師的多抱怨學生上課打瞌睡、不專心聽講,課後作業抄襲等。加強學生紀律雖然是一途,但改變教法可能更有效。附帶一記的,這次「 翻轉教室工作坊」的地點的博雅202是我上學期上通識課的教室。我難得有機會坐在下面聽講台的講者上課,心情轉換為學生。我也在想,若我是學生,如何看待老師的授課。
  以下是我參加這個工作坊所得到的一些訊息,供讀者參考。
http://www.knewton.com/flipped-classroom/
http://anethicalisland.wordpress.com
http://www.proera.com.tw

About 甘懷真

現職:臺灣大學歷史學系教授 研究領域:中國古代史、禮制與皇帝制度研究、東亞古代政治史 通訊處:臺灣大學歷史學系 臺北市106羅斯福路4段1號 電話:886-2-33664710
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