從反共救國軍聯想起

  冬日感冒,心情上有閒來無事之感,在網路上閒逛,看到「最後島嶼」電視影片,其中一集是介紹「反共救國軍」。作為古代史學者,自嘲對於這些近代的事也經常一知半解,雖然反共教國軍之詞我從小經常聽到,我也從來沒搞懂過。看完此片,直覺反共救國軍不就是古代以來在大陸東岸的「海賊」系譜之人,或許可以上連到所謂「倭寇」。
  1949年東亞大陸的政權又興替,新型態的共產政權成立。於是一批在東南沿海的人,因為抗拒新政權,逃到沿海諸島上。而同時,另一個反抗共產政權的新政權在台灣成立。在大時代的脈絡下,這批逃到沿海島上之人,被歸類為親中華民國或國民黨,當然被冠上反共之名。而這種政治分類其實也是因為其後的歷史發展所反過來造成的。如台灣的國民黨政權的成立而形成國共二政權隔台灣海峽對立;以及美國介入東亞政局,強勢主導反共陣營的成立。若回到1949年的歷史現場,這群從大陸沿海逃往離島之人,當然不是要在國共間作出抉擇。他們懼怕中共是真的,但沒有要選擇反共的陣營。
  把這個事件放到歷史的長河中。東亞大陸上一直有「陸與海的鬥爭」。我們可以思考這是歷史上的二類人群的鬥爭,即陸民與海民。這個鬥爭也肇因於漢代以來中國王權強調「農本」政策而引發的糾結。所謂海民,是指以海為生產場所者,其生產者有三類型。漁民、製鹽者與海上貿易者。當皇帝制度成立後,海民不管是主動或被動、情願或不情願都與中國王權合作。若彼此間有了矛盾,則發生戰爭。在漢末三國時期,漢朝、魏朝所代表的中國王權與環渤海灣地區的海民系豪族間發生戰爭。官方文書稱這些人為「海賊」。當這些「海賊」戰敗後,紛紛逃入沿海的島嶼。史書說是「走入海島」。我們可以推想,這些海島本來就是這些「海賊」的根據地,與大陸上的海民系豪族間有長期的連繫。或者我們可以說,對於海民而言,這些海島本來就與大陸沿岸是一個同一生活與生產的空間。這種型態的戰爭史不絕書,更有名的是明代的「倭寇」現象。
  再回頭看反共教國軍。他們在1949年開始,逃離家鄉而選擇進入離島,應該不是突發奇想的去異域避難,而是這些島嶼長期以來就是這批沿海人民的生活領域。這批人一如其歷史上的祖先,當大陸有難,他們就選擇避居海上島嶼,以待時變。
然而,無論他們料到或沒料到,國共戰爭所引發的不是傳統的改朝換代,也因以美國為代表的近代帝國主義宰制東亞,他們同樣是「走入海島」,但其命運與祖先將大不相同。他們的避難海島被迫轉變為反攻大陸,更悲慘的是要作為反共的前哨與先鋒。1960年後,反共救國軍走入歷史,也意味著東亞大陸上的失敗海民「走入海島」的歷史終結,甚至是「陸與海的鬥爭」的終結。
  古代史學者的信口開河,姑且聽之即可。

About 甘懷真

現職:臺灣大學歷史學系教授 研究領域:中國古代史、禮制與皇帝制度研究、東亞古代政治史 通訊處:臺灣大學歷史學系 臺北市106羅斯福路4段1號 電話:886-2-33664710
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