多元行動者觀點下的政治史研究:其一之古代冊封體制

  這學期在台大開「傳統中國的國家與皇權」的課程。該課程是從政治史的立場與方法,討論前近代的中華帝國,尤其集中在皇帝制度。其中的一個方法是「多元行動者觀點」。我曾在本網誌中討論過這個課題,見〈歷史中的多元行動者〉。再扼要言之。過去在研究歷史中國時,有意無意將中國當成一個行動者。這主要是受到一國史觀的影響。從行動者的角度來看,究極是每一個人是一個行動者,都有不同的策略,目的與行動。但這只能是理論,無法進行研究。故在實際研究上,我們只能以政治集團為一個單位,而忽略集團內不同行動者間的差異。至於如何區分政治集團則由具體的研究決定,不是理論決定,也就容有不同的見解。我就以我的課程講義為底稿,就幾個歷史的事例,從多元行動者的觀點探討政治史。第一篇再談冊封體制。
  我在課堂上談到我的一段經歷。有一次我赴韓國開一個古代高句麗史的會,報告冊封體制中的高句麗及其國際關係。會中,一位韓國的青年史家幾乎全盤否定冊封體制說,認為這是中國歷史學界的說法。我想這位學者不瞭解冊封體制的學說史,誤認為冊封體制是出自中國歷史學界之說。無論如何,我想這是從韓國民族主義史觀而來的反感。這種史觀認為歷史上自然而然的存在著自國之韓國。韓國自始即為一自立之國,只有當戰敗時才會暫時臣服於中國的霸權。持這種觀點的史學家不能接受其自國會主動與自願的接受外國的冊封。這種錯誤的歷史理解是由於史學家認為自國是一個行動者。
  關於冊封,我已在很多場合提過,就不再多作討論,這一次我要再談多元行動者的觀點。在分析政治史時,將行動者分作對立二方,是很低層次的分析法,尤其是對於帝國研究。如中國(某特定的朝廷如東漢、北魏等)冊封高句麗事件中,中國不是一個行動者,高句麗也不是。冊封的成立是中國內部的一個行動者與高句麗內部的一個行動者之間的聯盟,以鬥爭其他的行動者,本國內或外國的。歷史上的國家都有複數、多元的政治行動者,更何況帝國。國際關係建構在表面上是二國之間,實際上卻是複數行動者的合縱連橫。如中國有朝廷、地方政府(尤其邊郡)、地域的社會集團。中國如此,即使韓國沒那麼複雜,也是如此。冊封與朝貢是這諸多行動者之間建構關係的制度。這是一種錯綜複雜的關係。
  以古代高句麗的歷史為例說明。民族主義式的高句麗歷史,是想像高句麗自古以來就是「一個」民族。這個民族在歷史上崛起,其對手就是「一個」中國。西元前108年開始,中國(西漢)朝廷在高句麗的地盤建立它的地方政府(玄菟郡),於是中國與高句麗開始對抗。冊封是其中的一個結果,那是中國霸權對於高句麗的支配。學者也可以爭論這樣的冊封是否只是展現了中國所要的秩序,它從來不是受冊封國所定的秩序。
  但這只是民族主義史學的自國想像。早在前108年玄菟郡勢力侵入以前,多方勢力已在今天中國東北(滿州)南部角逐地盤,主要有以今天河北省北部為基地的燕國,以及滿州中部的夫餘。中國史書稱這裡的人為濊、貊等,他們的政治狀態若以「村落—邑—都—小國—大國—帝國」的架構來看,大多數只是「村落—邑—都」,也就是大多數是部落政治狀態。我們推測高句麗是其中的一個「村落—邑—都」的政權,應是其中的一個地域性強權。高句麗也不斷與週邊的諸濊貊政權鬥爭。不用說,這個時期沒有作為民族的高句麗。
  然後,漢朝來了。但說漢朝,就歷史實態而言是不對的。任何支配,不可能是無媒介的,須藉由特定的行動者。「支配媒介」也是多元行動者理論要強調的。政治史經常告訴我們A支配了B。其實是A1通過A2、再通過B1,而支配了B2。位在陝西的漢朝不可能直接支配遙遠東方的滿州。漢朝對於滿州南部、朝鮮半島北部的支配,須借力於早在這裡建立勢力的燕國。推測早期燕國在這裡建立殖民地時,已與高句麗合作。當玄菟郡建立後,也不可能無媒介支配當地。於是玄菟郡繼續這樣的合作,積極拉攏高句麗。
  高句麗有沒有抵抗呢?我們沒有史料足供分析,但從結果看是沒有。理由不難想像,就是漢朝的入侵對於高句麗政團是有利可圖的。對於高句麗(政團)而言,它的首要敵人是週遭的濊、貊政團,而漢郡是可以借力使力的。高句麗政團選擇與玄菟郡合作,接受扶植。玄菟郡設高句麗(驪)縣。一方面高句麗政團接受了漢郡的支配,另一方面也表示該政團成為漢郡支配更廣域的地域社會的媒介。高句麗藉由玄菟郡之力征服週邊的濊、貊之人,將之轉換為高句麗之民。於是高句麗在這個過程中壯大,也就是朝小國發展。其里程碑是西元前第一世紀後期,高句麗縣轉型為郡之下的縣級封建之國,即高句麗國。這樣的封建之國,一方面是作為縣而被置於郡之下,另一方面它又作為一個封建之國而有自主性,包括其首長可世襲等。我們可以說高句麗於此時已升級為東亞的一小國。
  當高句麗成為小國後,它的鬥爭對象就轉換為其週邊的大國,主要是漢的邊郡,如玄菟郡、遼東郡等。高句麗逐步征服了玄菟郡,並受到遼東郡的侵略。西元28年,發生了遼東郡侵略高句麗的戰爭。這個時期是新朝崩潰與東漢光武帝政權初立的時期。顯然遼東郡利用這種混亂期,積極向外入侵以擴張勢力。四年後的西元32年,高句麗國派使節至洛陽向漢天子光武帝朝貢,並被冊封為高句麗王。過去我們在看冊封時,只認為是「中國vs.蠻夷國」,其實情遠為複雜,主要是我們可以觀察出多元的行動者。在此次32年的冊封事件中,高句麗藉冊封所要結盟的對象是「漢朝廷」。在過去,高句麗的對手是漢朝的邊郡。且高句麗想利用這個事件以抗衡遼東郡。就當時的政治秩序,關鍵制度是君臣關係。當高句麗政團是高句麗縣侯國時,高句麗君主是作為玄菟郡長官(郡守)之臣。因此,高句麗君主就漢天下的等級而言低於遼東郡長官。當高句麗跳級向漢朝要求冊封後,就與漢天子直接締結君臣關係,也就提升了其首長在天下中的地位。如此當有利於高句麗國對內與對外的發展。
  然而,漢朝廷為什麼要接受高句麗國的謁見並冊封其君主?漢朝廷作為一個行動者也其自身的盤算。32年的冊封事件是在這個「漢朝廷、遼東郡、高句麗國」的三角關係的脈絡中發生。32年是漢光武帝登皇帝位的第八年,新的帝國秩序在成立中。高句麗國的統治集團希望拉攏成立未久的(東)漢朝廷以抗衡遼東郡。同時,漢朝廷也想拉攏「四夷」之國,用以宣告其「治天下」的正當性。另一方面,漢朝(以及其後的朝代)也希望能以高句麗制衡遼東郡。其後歷史可以證明,成為漢朝心腹之患的是遼東郡,不是高句麗。
  還有另一類行動者是諸新興國之政團。對於古代高句麗而言,其對手更是週邊諸國,包括中國邊郡(州)。又對於這些政團而言,他們的發展之道是與週邊諸政團合作、競爭或對抗,而不是與中國天子。更何況,魏晉南北朝的漫長時間中,究竟誰是中國天子,對於這些新興之國而言,也是由他們認定。在第四世紀以後,東亞大國並立的狀態成立,於是出現多邊的國際關係的需求。在東北亞地區,出現高句麗、新羅、百濟的朝鮮半島上的「三國」,與日本列島上的大和朝廷(倭)及其他國(臨日本海、關東、東北等),以及在遼東半島與河北省的(十六國之)燕等。高句麗在意的是與這些國的關係,尤其是如何取得優位。
  當時東亞世界的國際關係是建立在皇帝制度上,即天下理論。這個理論就是我反覆說的「天下—國—家」。一方面,要成為「天下」中的一「國」,必須該「國」的君長得到天子的任命。另一方面,由天子而來的品階標幟該國君主的地位,也標幟該國在「天下」的國際社會中的地位。我們可以說這就是在近代國際法成為國際關係的制度之前的東亞狀態。在現代,建國集團加入國際社會的方法是與其他國建立邦交,即相互承認。這是近代國家系體系(system of states)建立以後的作法。而前近代東亞則是藉由冊封體制。高句麗在第五世紀以後向南朝(主要是宋)、北魏,第六、七世紀向隋與唐朝貢並接受冊封,也與高句麗與倭、新羅與百濟的對抗有關。
  以上是我用古代高句麗的例子談政治史研究中的多元行動者的觀點。中國史研究尤其應強調這個觀點。中國史所研究的中國是歷史上的大帝國。從政治制度的角度,當然可以宣稱中國是一個政治單位。甚至從政治制度的角度也可以宣稱東亞世界是一個政治單位,即一些天下秩序學說所宣稱的那樣。這有可以辯論之處,但也有一定的道理。然而,從政治史的角度,這個帝國的中國有複數的行動者,他們彼此間既聯合又鬥爭。若不能觀察到這一點,我們不能瞭解歷史中國。
  最後,若對古代高句麗的冊封歷史有興趣,可參看拙作〈古代東亞國際關係中的高句麗(고대 동아시아 국제관계 속의 고구려)〉,《史學志》(韓國,檀國大學)50,2015年6月。

About 甘懷真

現職:臺灣大學歷史學系教授 研究領域:中國古代史、禮制與皇帝制度研究、東亞古代政治史 通訊處:臺灣大學歷史學系 臺北市106羅斯福路4段1號 電話:886-2-33664710
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