王權與緣:「王權與近代國家」講義筆記之一

 案語:這是我在台大所開設的「王權與近代國家」課程的上課講義,略加修改作為筆記,供修課學生閱讀。

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 本課程的主旨是探討「王權」與「自由」的關係,尤其集中在東亞的二大王權之中國與日本。我們關心「自由」的課題,嘗試從政治史的側面探討,而具體的討論對象是中國與日本的王權,並以朝鮮王權以為對照。
 何謂「自由」?我們可以解釋為「做自己」、「隨心所欲」、「為所欲為」。二十世紀歷史的動力是韋伯(Max Weber)所說的「除魅」(disenchantment)。所謂的「魅」是指宗教的規範與約束力,除魅就是宗教理性化。在西方,這尤指從中世紀以來的基督教規範中解放出來。(參考韋伯《宗教社會學》)從近代的立場,我們當然可以指歐洲中古之人受宗教規範而不自由,這種宗教規範夾雜著當時共同體(地緣的、血緣的、業緣的)規範。然而歷史學不是要用當下的自由規範去衡量歷史上的自由,甚至只是證明過去是不自由,而我們是何其自由。認為我們是自由的,而過去是不自由的,這種說法泰半是現在當權者在騙我們。因為他們正在設下新的規範以約束我們並取得他們的利益,為取得他們支配我們的正當性就讓我們相信過去是不自由的,而目前的當權者才給我們自由。我們的認識應如狄更斯(Charles Dickens)在《雙城記》(A Tale of Two Cities)所說:「這是最好的時代,這是最壞的時代。⋯我們正走向天堂,我們也正直下地獄。」這就是我們的時代。我們有中古之人沒有自由,我們也失去了他們有的自由。因此,歷史學要客觀的探討歷史上的人們在主觀上所認為自由為何?
 而自由又與「意義」是一體的兩面。自由所表現的「所欲」、「欲為」的對象必然是行動者所追求的生命的「意義」。意義則又源於外在世界給我們的規範,這類規範在中文可以是「關係」。我們的生命意義常來自於我們所處的共同體所蘊涵的關係,家族關係是其中最明顯的,尤其是其中的親子、夫妻。這類的「關係」在前近代又被稱為「緣」。我們活在一個諸緣的世界,從那裡得到我們生命的意義與快樂,如愛情、友情、親情。
 我介紹了日本史學家網野善彥《無縁、公界、楽:日本中世の自由と平和》一書。網野教授的課題是日本中世的自由以及女人的自由。他指出中世日本女人中的一部分人所追求的自由是「無緣」,尤指婚姻。而這類人的作法是逃入「無緣所」,或稱「緣切寺」,藉由佛教的原理得以宣告逃入寺內者可以斷絕與寺外世界中的一切緣,世俗的政府與團體都不得要求當事人執行這些緣,如婚姻關係。有名的緣切寺是日本江戶時代位在鎌倉附近的東慶寺。目前日本學界對該寺已有相當的研究成果。前年(2015)所上映的電影「駆込み女と駆出し男」(中譯:投靠女與出走男)就是在講東慶寺的故事。我附了一張劇照以想像當時婦女逃入無緣所的樣子。(電影公司宣傳照,http://kakekomi-movie.jp)我是在坐飛機時看到這部電影,這應該是因為我跟這段歷史有緣吧。
 關係與緣就是我們這門課的二個關鍵字,我們將用它們來探討歷史上中國、日本與朝鮮王權的建構。歷史上王權解消了緣,又創造了它所要的緣。前者的緣如氏族,後者的緣如官僚制。中國王權創造了歷史上的鉅大的帝國,其所以成功是因為中國王權創造了一種新的社會關係,或說是緣。這種緣來自於接下來要討論的「禮」以及文字。此文字就是我們所說的漢字。

 

About 甘懷真

現職:臺灣大學歷史學系教授 研究領域:中國古代史、禮制與皇帝制度研究、東亞古代政治史 通訊處:臺灣大學歷史學系 臺北市106羅斯福路4段1號 電話:886-2-33664710
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